A new dispute settlement body, similar to those used in trade agreements around the world, will settle future disputes over whether either party has broken the terms of the agreement. .
The body will be composed of equal representation, with an independent arbitrator holding the balance of power so that it remains politically neutral.
An EU request that it should be able to impose lightning tariffs in the UK without arbitration was dropped at the last minute, meaning the tariffs can only be imposed by the arbitrator.
Britain agreed the trade and security deal, as well as the fisheries deal, would be part of a comprehensive treaty in a clear victory for Brussels.
London was concerned about the risk of cross-sector retaliation and the fact that, for example, parts of the trade deal could be frozen in response to a dispute over fish. Cross-sectoral retaliation remains possible but, in a victory for Britain, the agreement is based on international law and not on that set by the European Court of Justice.
From January 1, UK nationals will need a visa to stay in EU countries for more than 90 days within a period of 180 days. European pet passports will not be accepted, but owners can still travel with their pet if they go through a new and more complex process.
Travelers can still use their EHIC (European Health Insurance Card) until it expires. After that date, the government announced that they would be replaced by a UK Global Health Insurance Card (GHIC); however, they have yet to share more details on what this card will entail.
UK travelers will not need an international driving license to drive in EU countries.
The UK and the EU have reached an international mobile roaming agreement, but the terms of it are still unclear.
UK mobile users are no longer automatically entitled to free roaming as of December 31, however, Vodafone, O2 and Three have indicated that they will continue to offer it.
The government had previously announced that it would cap automatic data charges at £ 45 per month for operators who do not continue free roaming.
Great Britain will not continue to participate in the Erasmus + student exchange program but will fund its continued participation in the Horizon Europe research and innovation fund.
The agreement supports the pursuit of partnerships between UK and European research and science experts in the Euratom research and training program as well as in the Copernicus space program.
The sources number 10 claimed that the deal did not mean a new agreement on migration, but it was in fact a British request.
It will likely be more difficult to return illegal migrants to the EU than before Brexit without complicated bilateral deals. British negotiators had hoped to reach an EU-wide deal.
The UK and the EU have agreed to allow data to cross borders transparently. However, their agreement underlines that an individual has the right to data protection. He shares that both sides have “high standards” to “contribute to confidence in the digital economy and the development of trade”.
The EU has granted the UK a period of four months, which can also be extended for another two months, during which data can continue to be exchanged using the same process as it is now. However, this will only work if the UK does not adapt its data protection rules in the meantime.
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